Monaco and the Environment
Monaco – a City State
The Principality of Monaco, a City State covering 2 square kilometres with 35,000 inhabitants and 52,000 employees, is bordered by the Mediterranean. At the instigation of H.S.H. Prince Albert II, the Government of Monaco promotes sustainable development in the Principality, by focusing its activities on respect for biodiversity, the preservation of resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and a policy which favours a sustainable city.
Marine and terrestrial biodiversity
Effective management of the Principality's natural heritage involves the implementation of inventory programmes and the monitoring of marine and terrestrial fauna and flora, specifically in the Larvotto marine reserve. Marine inventories in the Larvotto reserve resulted in the identification of 83 brown grouper in 2006 and 450 pen shells in 2009. Sensitive to their environment, these two protected species are also good indicators of the quality of the sea water.
As for terrestrial activities, a census of insects (entomofauna) living in association with the plants of Monaco is currently under way. Initiated in 2006, an all taxa inventory of terrestrial endemic flora has led to the identification of 10 species which benefit from a protection status, at least at a regional level, such as the acis nicaeensis. An inventory programme of birds (avifauna) is currently under way. A pair of peregrine falcons and three young birds recently hatched in the Rocher cliffs have already been located and photographed thanks to this programme.
An energy climate plan
By implementing a climate energy plan three goals are being pursued: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% compared to 1990; to improve energy efficiency by 20%; and to ensure that 20% of final energy consumed comes from renewable sources. For example, the Principality has been developing heat pumps using sea water since the 1960s. Today, they supply 17% of all energy consumed.
Monaco, a sustainable city
The implementation of a public policy in favour of a sustainable city concerns mobility and travel, by promoting the use of public transport, encouraging soft mobility thanks to 33 public mechanised pedestrian systems (i.e. a hundred or so lifts, escalators...) open 24/7, and by developing the use of the electric vehicle.
Waste management is also a priority. Since 2008, selective waste collection has been intensified with the installation of fifty or so voluntary disposal points for glass, paper and household packaging. The incineration of household waste is used to recover energy, generating more or less the equivalent amount of electricity as just over half of the Principality's public lighting consumption.
The preservation of resources and waste water treatment form part of the approach towards a sustainable city. 75% of the water consumed in the Principality comes from two valleys in the neighbouring region: the Vésubie and the Roya. The remaining 25% comes from springs located on Monegasque territory. The Principality treats all its waste water, as well as that of the neighbouring towns in the catchment area.
The quality of life
The various components of this environmental policy also contribute towards improving the quality of life in the Principality. Other factors play a participating role.
These include the quality of private and public green spaces, which covered a mere 50,000 m2 in 1961 and are now spread over approximately 442,000 m2 including 274,000 m2 of public green spaces, consisting mainly of ornamental gardens, most often focused on a theme: the Princess Grace rose garden, the olive grove, the Japanese Gardens, the Exotic Garden, the fitness path, the children's garden etc, in addition to 800 avenue trees.
Mobilisation of the Monegasque community
The Monegasque State is particularly active with regard to all issues relating to sustainable development. Such action is extended further thanks to the commitment of various players in the Monegasque community whose involvement is worthy of mention: the private sector (JCI, SBM, Grimaldi Forum), the association sector (AMPN, Act for Nature, MC2D...) and various Foundations.
On the initiative of HSH Prince Albert II; the Government of Monaco has been a partner of the CyberDodo Foundation since it was first established and has since been joined by other organisations including the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Interpol.
The global dissemination of a message on respect and preservation using a multilingual, educational platform which is fun, free and designed for the whole family (children, parents and grandparents) is an effective and innovative way of providing information on and raising awareness of the major environmental challenges of our time.
The site gives each of us the opportunity to become a responsible citizen who protects Nature and guarantees the rights of future generations.